Project Description

The city of Le Port has the highest solar irradiation and temperature of the island. Thus, the design of the buildings of Flores Malacca project had to respond to 3 main objectives : - Improving the living environment of residents with comfortable housing - Reducing the environmental impact of urban development with low energy consumption and CO2 emissions - Supporting the ambitious national and regional environmental policy with the integration of renewable energy The two triangular islets of Flores and Malacca belong to a large urban development project initiated by the city of Le Port for the densification of its city center. The five buildings of the operation are designed according to passive bioclimatic principles to provide 138 comfortable and energy efficient subsidized homes (including 53 student dwellings).

Carte r%c3%a9union monde
Flores r%c3%a9union
Flores casquette
Flores coursive
Flores quartier

Building Details

Mix housing

New building project



9075 m²

9075 m²

PERENE (thermal performance guide in Reunion Island)

EURO 14 556 000

EURO 1604


Project Team

AP architectures, 2APMR



Antoine Perrau

Michel Reynaud


LEU Réunion

Climate Analysis

The city of Le Port is characterized by a high radiation level, with an annual direct normal radiation average of 900 Wh/m². The temperature range in Le Port varies on average over the year between 22 and 28°C. The winds of site are characterized by trade winds coming from the South-West in winter and North-East in summer.

Flores course solaire
Flores tool

Design Approach

Several architectural choices make the project harmoniously integrated in its surrounding environment. Progressive and limited building heights (with maximum 5 storeys) with recessed penthouses respect the scale of the district. The vertical layout of the buildings is also integrated in the topography of the site and avoids unnecessary earthworks. Visual comfort is also taken into account in the sizing of the windows with a window to wall ratio higher in the lower storeys than in the higher ones. Vegetation also contributes to ensure housing privacy by creating real vegetal screens.

Solar shading is achieved by various architecturally integrated features designed according to the orientation of the facades, the views and the openings to protect: louvered porches, shading external passageways ; horizontal blinds, vertical fins, trellised screens, over-roofs with wide overhangs. Cooling is performed by natural ventilation combined with the evapotranspiration induced by the omnipresent native vegetation: all housing units are cross naturally ventilated and equipped with louvered windows; offices and shops are equipped with fans and the breakdown of the buildings facilitates the air flow at the scale of the building block.
Flores plan masse


Special Feature

Glaozing percentage: 30% Overhangs and vertical blades for solar shading

No air conditioning. Limited use of mechanical systems for the ventilation of the bathrooms and toilets which are preferably located on the facades and naturally ventilated throughout louvered windows. The buildings are orientated facing the dominant wind for natural cross ventilation. PV panels and ST collectors are integrated to the over-roofs which are used for shading the roofs of the buildings and limiting the adverse thermal gains through material conduction. This allows also cooling the panels and avoiding potential overheating which affects their efficiency. East and West facades, the most exposed, are thermally protected with wooden cladding. A reflective cladding is also installed and allows reflects up to 90% of the solar radiation.

Several architectural features favor social integration. The absence of separate building entries avoids the sense of social hierarchy. Discontinuous paths, open passageways and stairs, shaded terrace gardens are common places that favor social meeting and mixing. They favor the interactions between the inhabitants which enhances their sense of ownership and community.

Building Material


Concrete Other elements (over-roofs, pergolas, passageways, decks, solar shadings, cladding) : wood


Over-roof with integrated PV panels Insulation Concrete slab

Energy systems

Installed by the occupant

Tye: fluorescent Controls: time swith

High-performant ceiling fans in bedrooms and living rooms


Limited use of mechanical systems for the ventilation of the bathrooms and toilets which are preferably located on the facades and naturally ventilated throughout louvered windows.

• Domestic hot water for all the buildings is produced thanks to 219 m² of solar thermal collectors. Individual water tanks are installed in each apartment. • 420 m² of PV panels (88kW power) are installed on the over-roofs of the buildings. Unique feature for a social housing building on the island, the PV panels which are connected to the grid, generate 10,000 kWh per month. • An electric backup power supply is installed and run in case of low solar availability in winter. • Annual energy consumption: between 28 and 40 kWh/m².yr.
Flores solaire

Lessons Learned

70% of the heat input comes through the roof, and so this element of the design should be treated with the utmost consideration and care. Over-roofs are a very efficient feature mutualizing energy generation and solar protection

A high level of porosity of the facades combined with optimized solar shading devices and vegetated surroundings ensure good thermal comfort even in harsh tropical conditions.

The common areas designed as real social spaces are victims of their success. This is reflected by the presence of outsiders who are not necessarily desired. Concrete solar shading overhangs are efficient but store and release heat.