Project Description

It is a single residence in a new upper class area in Bangalore. A mid size plot and built with passive use of climate promoting natural ventilation and light with minimal use of artificial ventilators like electric fans.

Mallikarjun residence  crop 2
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Building Details

Single Residential Building

New construction

240 m²


210 m²

140 m²

140 m²

none officially done

INR 4000000

INR 17390



Project Team

BSB Architects, Bangalore and Mysore


Owner built

C N Yadunandan

Dr. B S Bhooshan

Principal Architect, BSB architects, Mysore and Bangalore. Has been in practice since 1988. Was a teacher at Mysore University earlier. Won several national awards. Has been in visiting professor guiding Doctoral Research students.

Sathya Narayan Interior contractor

Climate Analysis

Bangalore is located in the southern edge of Deccan Plateau. Elevation 923M above MSL.It has a tropical wet / dry climate. The dry season in the low-sun months , no very cold season, wet season is in the high-sun months. Temperatures are moderate. Never goes below 10 degree Celsius in winter nights and hardly goes above 35 even in summer. Very rarely reaches 40 .However fairly good and heavy rain lashes Bangalore. spread over 7-8 months. It receives good winds from West and Southwest as well as from East and North east.. For a comfortable Living good ventilation and circulation of air with insulation of roof from direct heat gain would suffice.

Avg temp bangalore 2
Wind rose diagram bangalore
Wind speed bangalore
Mallikarjun sun path
Bangalore climate graph

Design Approach

An inward looking house internalizing part of the exterior spaces on the side backs with high pergolas and providing sky lights and ventilators and thus increasing the circulation of air was the primary concept. Fluid spaces help air circulation in summer.

Site was small 12 x 18 meters. with similar size plots on both sides and behind. An access road of 12 meters at the east. High density development with 2 -3 stories around. Area was fully developed. Ground level.The building was designed to fit the area leaving largish required set back at the front. The trees on the road were preserved. The approach road is a shaded street now.

The house is designed for a small family of 4 adults. Father, an small scale industrialist and a photographer, mother and children. The setbacks on the sides are internalized by making them as semi landscaped courts with high level pergolas and insect proofing. The with large openings between these courts and the double height living spaces are fluid spaces. No windows or doors used there so that the inside space merges with semi enclosed outside. One bed room is on the GF besides, living dining and kitchen and the entrance. Cars and vehicles like 2 wheeler can be parked in the front open yard that also double as basket ball practice space. Two more bed rooms on the West and a study in the East are of first floor connected by an wooden bridge. This and an open wood plank stairs landing on to the bridge are supported on steel. High density single residence development all round insulate the house from Northern or Western afternoon sun.
Mallikarjun site plan


Special Feature

ventillators, indirect sky lights, punctures on roof with glass cover.

Nothing specifically attempted.

Heating is not required for Bangalore's climate. Good ventilation and provision of air movement is sufficient most of the times. Only during summer months when temperature touches and sometime cross 35 degree celsius, the place need cooling. It is achived by reducing heat gain from roof using vaulted shapes thus increasing internal volume and height. Further hollow clay blocks conducts less heat from the screed concrete on top to the inner space. Convection of hot air moving up the double height escape through ventilators just between two levels of roof is used as a design feature

It is not designed as a cost effective building. But not as a higher cost as well. Exposed stone and bricks, minimal openings has not increased the cost beyond average.

Reduction of embedded energy by local and labour intensive materials. Recycled waste wood ( pine woood packing cases reused

Building Material

Load bearing masonry using wirecut bricks local stones and brick composite masonry with plastered surface inside. The roofs were of Filler concrete vaults.

stone masonry foundation. Common use.

composite masonry. local granite stone or wire cut bricks outside and local brick inside. Walls insulate against external temperauire variations.

Minimal Use f close-able openings. Wood. teak wood. glazed windows.

Ceramic ties and vitrified tiles. Easy availability , Easy maintainability and comparatively lesser costs.

plaster or exposed bricks

Vault roof with hollow clay blocks embedded-filler slab. Staggered vaults with row of ventilators. The vault roof extends area under cover and also makes the roof receive lesser intensity of sun's rays. Hollow tiles used as filler in slabs and vaults reduce radiation from roof. Insulates better.

Local Granite slabs for pavements. Pebbles for dry landscape of courts.

Energy systems

30 + nos with open points to fit any bulb. CFL, LED or Incadescend or plain tubes

8-9 nos with bulk heads

5 nos

none. provision of points for split AC in bed rooms


none special. except solar water heater on roof with hot water on all bath rooms. picture below

Solar water heating system for bathing only. Picture below
Solar water heater

Lessons Learned

The mosquitoes are real problems in keeping windows and ventilators open . Therefore, insect meshes are necessary in all openings. Incorporating court area which are usually exterior spaces into living areas and sleeping areas reduces the heat stagnation and air movement inside and reduces the total ccost of openings as well. courts with high level pergolas with insect nets and split roof with row of ventilators make spaces feel fresh.and airy.

The occupants are satisfied. and are proud.

1. Increasing the volume by double height space, fluidity and continuity with courts and living spaces, high level sky lights and ventilators all increases the circulation of air and freshness. 2. Vaulted roof increase roof area for the same plan size and some parts of the vault will be in shade. It also increases volume and height. All this along with hollow clay filler slab reduces direct heat gain from roof.